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NATIONAL CENTER FOR NEUROSURGERY

Primary and metastatic tumors of the spine

Spinal Tumors are primary and secondary, i.e. , metastatic . Primary tumors can be benign or malignant. Any of tumors may reduce its strength by destroying the vertebral body, and ultimately lead to the development of pathological fracture gross neurological disorders. Metastatic tumors of the skeleton found 2 - 4 times more often than the primary and took third place in frequency of metastatic lesions after lung and liver (3,9). The relationship between benign, malignant and metastatic lesions of the spine as follows:

  • Primary benign tumors - 1%
  • Primary malignant tumors - 3%
  • Metastatic tumors - 96%

The most common benign tumor of the spine is the hemangioma, and among secondary malignant - metastatic tumors and multiple myeloma..

Metastatic lesions of spine are the result of skidding with the blood or lymph tumor cells into the spine from other organs. Most primary source of metastases into spine are lung tumors , breast , kidney , prostate, but may be a tumor of other organs. 40% of patients with malignant neoplasms exhibit a secondary spine involvement. And in 20% of cases it is the defeat of the spine is the first manifestation of a cancer. Metastatic lesions are more often localized in the vertebral bodies, and only 15 % of cases spread beyond it and into the spinal canal.

Symptoms

The development of tumors of the spinal cord is accompanied by pain in the spine, which occur due to compression of the nerve roots. Nature of pain can be different, reminiscent of pain: myositis, sciatica, neuralgia, so patients often seek treatment for neurologists , without x-ray spine. In a further development of tumors various areas of the body grow numb, but in some cases may increase the sensitivity. There are muscle spasms and paralysis. If the tumor is formed in the lumbar spine, urination and sexual function will be broken.

Metastatic lesions of the spine do not have specific clinical symptoms and neurologic manifestations do not differ from the symptoms of other pathological conditions of spine and spinal cord, so the appearance of bone pain in patients with a known primary tumor with a high degree of probability we can assume the presence of metastatic disease of the skeleton.

Methods of treatment:

  •  Microsurgical removal of the bulk of education spinal cord and vertebral column
  •  Decompressive-stabilizing operations with the use of pedicle designs, interbody cages and other implants
  •  Vertebroplasty
  •  One-stage resection of the affected vertebra with the stabilization of the affected segment