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NATIONAL CENTER FOR NEUROSURGERY

Brain tumors

Symptoms

Characters and symptoms of a brain tumor varied and depend on the size of the tumor, its localization and growth rate.

Common characters and symptoms, caused by a brain tumor:

  • headache or changes in the normal pattern of headaches (headaches eventually become more frequent and strong, amplified in the supine position or after a nap) ;
  • unexplained nausea or vomiting;
  • problems with vision, blurred vision, double vision or loss of peripheral vision;
  • gradual loss of touch or sensation in the arm or leg ;
  • difficulties in compliance with balance;
  • speech pathology;
  • difficulty in performing daily activities;
  • personality or behavioral changes;
  • spusmus, particularly in patients who are not previously observed;
  • hearing impairment;
  • hormonal (endocrine) disorder;
  • confusion, drowsiness, stunning, stupor, coma, brain.

Classification

Primary brain tumors begin to grow in the tissues of the brain or in the border areas, such as in the brain tunic , cranial nerves , pituitary or pineal gland . Primary brain tumors begin to develop when normal cells encounter errors mutation ) in the DNA. These mutations lead to the fact that the cells begin to divide and grow at high speeds and continue to exist, even when healthy cells should be lost. This leads to the development of pathological tumor cells forming the tumor.

Primary brain tumors are less common than secondary brain tumor, where the tumor process begins in another organ of the body and extends to the brain. There are many types of primary brain tumors. Classification of primary tumors based on the type of tissue from which the tumor is based.

For example:

  • acoustic neuroma (schwannoma);
  • astrocytoma;
  • glioma and glioblastoma;
  • ependymoma;
  • ependymoblastoma;
  • medulloblastoma;
  • meningioma;
  • neuroblastoma;
  • oligodendroglioma;
  • pineoblastoma.

Secondary brain tumors

The secondary (metastatic) brain tumors - is a tumor arising from the malignant process, which begins its development in any organ of the body and then spreads (metastasizes) to the brain. Any type of cancer can spread to the brain, but the most common types include:

  • breast cancer;
  • colon cancer;
  • kidney cancer;
  • lung cancer;
  • melanoma;
  • neuroblastoma;
  • sarcoma.

Risk factors

Although doctors are not sure in the causes of genetic mutations that lead to the development of primary tumors of the brain, they have identified factors which can increase the risk of brain tumors. Risk factors include:

Age. The risk of tumors of the brain increases with age. Most brain tumors occur with people of 45 years and elder. However, a brain tumor can occur at any age. Some brain tumors such as benign or medulloblastoma cerebellar astrocytoma, develop mainly only with children.

Exposure to radiation. Persons exposed to ionizing radiation, have an increased risk of brain tumors . Examples of ionizing radiation is radiation therapy used to treat cancer and radiation, caused by exposure of atomic bombs, as well as man-made disasters with the occurrence of radiation exposure . More common forms of radiation, such as electromagnetic fields from power lines , radio emissions from mobile phones and microwave ovens, remain unproven factors that induce the growth of brain tumors.

Exposure to chemicals in the workplace. People working in certain companies, are in the group of increased risk of developing brain tumors, possibly due to the contacts with chemicals to which they are exposed in the workplace. Studies have not always confirm this information, but there is some evidence of increased risk of brain tumors in the enterprises of certain industries, including agriculture, electrical engineering, health and petrochemical industries .

Family history of brain tumors. A small portion of brain tumors occur in people with a family history of brain tumors or a family history of genetic syndromes that increase the risk of developing brain tumors.

Method of treatment:

  • Microsurgical removal of brain tumors using intra-operative navigation system
  • Microsurgical removal of brain tumors using intraoperative neuromonitoring
  • Microsurgical removal of hard-to-skull base tumors using combined transbazal access and intraoperative neuromonitoring, endoscopic-assisted
  • Microsurgical biopsy mass lesions with the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring