Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the nervous system characterized by recurrent relatively stereotyped attacks. The incidence of epilepsy is on average of 5-10%. Epileptic seizures are caused by abnormal discharges in the brain and manifest by temporary disturbance of motor, sensory, autonomic, or cognitive functions.
Drug treatment of epilepsy is effective in 70-80 % of patients. The remaining 20-30 % of cases have a so -called drug-resistant form of epilepsy that is a form of the disease in which the severity and frequency of seizures, neurological and psychiatric symptoms and side effects of drugs can not be correctedsatisfactorilyand are unacceptable to the patient and (or) his family. In such cases, patients have a poor quality of life, increased morbidity and mortality. On the causes epilepsy is classified into "symptomatic" (when a structural defect of the brain, such as a cyst, tumor, hemorrhage, malformations can be found), idiopathic ( when there is a genetic predisposition, structural changes in the brain are absent), and cryptogenic (when the cause of the disease is not possibleto identify).
The manifestations of seizures vary from generalized seizures to subtle changes in the internal state of the patienthardly noticeable by surroundingpeople. There are distinguished isolated focal seizures associated with the occurrence of an electrical discharge in a certain limited area of the cortex of the brain and generalized seizures in which the discharge simultaneously engages both hemispheres of the brain. In focal seizures may occur convulsions or peculiar sensations(such as numbness) in certain parts of the body (face, arms, legs etc.). Also, focal seizures may occur with short bouts of visual, auditory, olfactory or gustatory hallucinations. In these attacks consciousness may be kept, in such a case the patient describes sensationsin detail. The duration of partial seizures is usually not more than 30 seconds.
Methods of treatment
- Surgical treatment of drug-resistant forms of epilepsy